IC fabrication by using Planar Diffusion Process

Planar diffusion process is the process used for production of ICs or discrete devices. Since all the fabrication steps are performed at the surface of Silicon crystal in a single phase, this is so called Planar Diffusion Process.

In the planar diffusion fabrication process, diffusion takes place in an electronic furnance whose atmosphere can be very accurately controlled as required, such a furnance is called a diffusion furnance.

Although Germanium (Ge) and Gallium-arsenide (GaAs) are also used to make semiconductor devices, Si is still the most popular material.

Silicon (Si) is much more suitable for fabricating active devices because of its good electrical characteristics and physical properties. Plus Si is used to form excellent insulation layer (ie SiO2 glass)- eventually to construct JFETs, MOSFETs and CCDs.

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Basic of Integrated Circuit Technology (ICT)

IC, Integrated Circuit, is a complete circuit manufactured as a single package. Integrated System is the process of making IC on single chip, also called as microcircuit system.

ICs can be categorized in many types- according to manufacturing pattern, integrated component and their applications.

Digital Electronics EG677EX

Course Objectives: To study the properties and applications of integrated digital electronic devices

1.0 Bipolar Transistor Switching Characteristics (6 hours)

1.1 The Ebers-Moll equations
1.2 Depletion region charge and delay time
1.3 Base region charge and the succession of steady states model
1.4 Rise, storage and fall time calculations

2.0 MOS Transistor Switching Characteristics (6 hours)

2.1 The quadratic dc equation in pre-pinch-off and in pinch-off
2.2 Device and parasitic capacitances
2.3 Turn-on and turn-off times

3.0 Bipolar Transistor Logic Circuits (6 hours)

3.1 Types of devices
3.2 Speed calculations, propagation delays
3.3 Power dissipations
3.4 Fan out
3.5 Noise margin

4.0 The NMOS Family of Logic Circuits (6 hours)

4.1 Types of devices
4.2 Speed calculations, propagation delays
4.3 Power dissipation
4.4 Noise margin

5.0 The CMOS Family of Logic Circuits (6 hours)

5.1 Types of devices
5.2 Speed calculations, propagation delays
5.3 Power dissipations
5.4 Fan out
5.5 Noise margin

6.0 Comparision of Logic Families (2 hours)

7.0 Memory (4 hours)

7.1 Random access memory (RAM)
7.2 Dynamic random access memory (DRAM)
7.3 Read-only memory (ROM)
7.4 Electrically erasable and programmable read only memory (EEPROM)
7.5 Comparision of memory types

8.0 Other Topics (9 hours)

8.1 Programmable logic arrays (PLA)
8.2 Very large scale integrated systems (VLSI)
8.3 Charge coupled devices (CCDs)
8.4 Integrated injection logic (IIL)


1.0 Bipolar transistor switching
2.0 MOS transistor switching
3.0 Bipolar transistor logic gates
4.0 NMOS logic gates
5.0 CMOS logic gates
6.0 Programmed logic array usage


1.0 D A Hodges and H G Jackson, “Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983

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Electronic Circuits I EG572EX

To build on the material presented inSemi Conductor Devicesto include the fundamentals of analog integrated circuit (IC) operation. Particular attention will be directed toward understanding operational amplifier operation over the full useful frequency range. Regulated power supplies, power amplifiers and relaxation and sinusoidal oscillators will be discussed.

1.0 Integrated Circuit Technology and Device Models:(10 hours)
1.1 The planar process for integrated circuit fabrication
1.2 Review of dc and ac diode models
1.3 Review of dc and ac JFET models
1.4 Review of dc and ac bipolar transistor models
1.5 Review of dc and ac MOS transistor models

2.0 Operational Amplifier Circuits:(8 hours)
2.1 Bias circuits suitable for IC design
2.2 The widlar currant source
2.3 The differential amplifier
2.4 Active loads
2.5 Output stages

3.0 Operational Amplifier Characterization:(6 hours)
3.1 Input offset voltage
3.2 Input bias and input offset currents
3.3 Output impedance
3.4 Differential and common-mode input impedances
3.5 DC gain, bandwidth, gain-bandwidth product
3.6 Common-mode and power supply rejection ratios
3.7 Higher frequency poles, settling time
3.8 Slew rate
3.9 Noise in operational amplifier circuits

4.0 Power Supplies and Voltage Regulators:(6 hours)
4.1 Half-wave and full-wave rectifiers
4.2 Capacitive filtering
4.3 Zener diodes, bandgap voltage references, constant current diodes
4.4 Zener diode voltage regulators
4.5 Series transistor-zener diode voltage regulators
4.6 Series transistor-zener diode-constant current diode voltage regulators
4.7 Voltage regulators with feedback
4.8 IC voltage regulations

5.0 Untuned and Tuned Power Amplifiers:(7 hours)
5.1 Amplifier classification
5.2 Direct-coupled push-pull stages
5.3 Transformer-coupled push-pull stages
5.4 Tuned power amplifiers
5.5 Power dissipation considerations

6.0 Oscillator Circuits:(8 hours)
6.1 CMOS inverter relaxation oscillator
6.2 Operation amplifier based relaxation oscillators
6.3 Voltage-to-frequency converters
6.4 Sinusoidal oscillators
6.5 Conditions for oscillators
6.6 Amplitude and frequency stabilization
6.7 Swept frequency oscillators
6.8 Frequency synthesizers
6.9 Function generators

1.0 Study of a discrete component operational amplifier realization.
2.0 Commercial operational amplifier characterization.
3.0 Regulated power supplies
4.0 Power amplifiers
5.0 Relaxation oscillators
6.0 Sinusoidal oscillators

Reference Books:
1) W. Stanely “operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated circuits”, Charles E. Merrill publishing company, Toronto,1984.
2) J. G. Graeme, “Application of operational Amplifiers: Third Generation Techniques” The burr-Brown Electronic series”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973.
3) P. E. Allen and D. R. Holberg, “CMOS Analog Circuit Design”, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, 1987.
4) A. S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, “Microelectronic Circuits”, 2nd Edition, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York.