To provide the concept and knowledge of physics with the emphasis of present day applications. The background of physics corresponding to Proficiency Certificate Level is assumed.
1.0 Oscillations and Simple Harmonic motion (3 Hours)
1.1 Introduction to mean position and restoring force. Elastic restoring force. Hooks
Law. Definition of SHM. Condition of SHM. Rarity of SHM’S. Equation of SHM.
1.2 Examples of SHM: spring-mass system, Physical pendulum and torsional pendulum.
1.3 Damped Oscillations. Equation of damped oscillator. Forced oscillation and resonance.
2.0 Wave in Elastic Media (6 Hours)
2.1 Introduction to the wave process. Types of waves (only introduction). Speed of transverse waves. Dependence of wave velocity from the properties of medium. Equation of wave process; Particle velocity and particle acceleration.
2.2 Energy power and intensity in wave motion. Standing waves and resonance.
3.0 Acoustics (7 Hours)
3.1 Sound waves. Propagation of sound wave in solids, liquids and gases (review). Pressure variation due to waves.
3.2 Energy considerations. Intensity, Intensity level and loudness. Decibel and phon. Introduction to the reflection, refraction, attenuation and diffraction of sound.
3.3 Auditorial acoustics. Reverberation of sound. Sabine’s Law. Conditions for good auditorium and concert halls.
3.4 Doppler effect.
3.5 Ultrasound: Introduction and properties. Production of ultrasound by magnetostriction and piezoelectric methods. Uses of ultrasound in distance measurement, signaling. Non-destructive test of structures and materials.
4.0 Electrostatics (8 Hours)
4.1 Electric charge. Coulomb’s law of electrostatic field. Lines of force. Calculation of electric field due to dipole, quadrupole, charged ring and linear charge.
4.2 Electric flux. Gauss’ Law and its application to charges dielectric sphere.
4.3 Electric potential. Potential, field strength and potential gradient. Potential due to a point charge.
4.4 Potential due to dipole and quadrupole. Electrostatic potential energy.
4.5 Capacitors: Parallel plate capacitor, cylindrical capacitor, spherical capacitor.
4.6 Effect of dielectrics. Determination of relative dielectric Permitivity. Conductors and dielectrics in electric field. E and D fields. Energy stored in electric field. Energy density.
4.7 High intensity electrostatic fields. Uses of static electric fields in Xeroxing and precipitation. Hazard of strong electrostatic fields: lightning.
5.0 Direct current (3 Hours)
5.1 Current and current density. Current flow in solid, liquid and gases. Ohm’s law. Resistance’s in series and in parallel.
5.2 Kirchhoff’s Laws.
5.3 Atomic view of resistivity. Current flow in semiconductors and metals. Temperature dependence of resistivity.
5.4 Energy loss in circuit. Joule’s Law of heating effect. Long distance transmission lines.
5.5 Charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor. Time constant.
6.0 Magnetism and Magnetic fields. (7 Hours)
6.1 Source of Magnetic fields: Current and permanent magnets. Terrestrial magnetism. Lines of force. Flux of magnetic field and permeability.
6.2 Biot and Savart’s law and its application to long straight wire and circular current loop. Amperes theorem and its application to long straight conductor, solenoid and toroid carrying current.
6.3 Magnetic scalar potential and potential gradient.
6.4 Force on moving charge on magnetic field. Hall effort. Force on conductor in magnetic field. Force per unit length between parallel conductors carrying current.
6.5 Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Flux linkage. Lenz’s law. Selfinduction. Calculation of the coefficient of self-induction for solenoid and toroid.
6.6 LR circuit. Energy stored in magnetic field. Energy density of magnetic field.
6.7 H, B and fields.
7.0 Electromagnetic Oscillations (7 Hours)
7.1 LC oscillations. Analogy to SHM.
7.2 Electromagnetic oscillations of LCR circuit. Forced oscillation of LCR circuit and resonance.
8.0 Electromagnetic waves (4 Hours)
8.1 Equation of continuity as the law of conservation of electric charge. Maxwell equations in integral and differential forms.
8.2 Displacement current and its significance.
8.3 Application of Maxwell equations: wave equations in free space and nonconducting medium.
8.4 Speed of electromagnetic waves. Energy of electromagnetic wave. Poynting vector.
9.0 Optics (15 Hours)
9.1 Introduction to light: Light as EM wave. Geometrical and wave optics. (Concepts only). Review of refraction through lenses. Combination of two lenses separated by distance. Cardinal points. Achromatic combination of two lenses separated by distance
9.2 Monochromatic aberration of lenses. Spherical aberration, astigmatism, coma, curvature of field and distortion. Causes and their minimization.
9.3 Fibre Optics: Introduction to optical fibres as medium for guiding a wave. The meaning of self focussing in optical fibres. Types of optical fibres according to the variation of refractive index within the optical fibres: single mode and multi mode. Uses of laser light in communication.
9.4 Lasers: principle of the generation of laser light. Basic differences of laser light from ordinary light: beam size, non-divergence, and high degree of monochromaticity and coherence. Uses of laser: industrial, medical and communication.
9.5 Interference. Introduction and mathematical theory. Coherent sources. Causes of non-coherence. Examples of the division of wavefront and amplitude. Interference in thin films and wedges. Fringes of equal inclination and fringes of equal thickness. Non-reflecting films. Newton’s rings. Uses of interference in analysing the variation of thickness.
9.6 Diffraction: Introduction. Difference between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction. Difference between interference and diffraction pattern. Explanation of the variation of intensity due to single slit. Diffraction grating. Resolving power to diffraction gratings.
9.7 Polarisation: Visual explanation of polarization wave. Introduction to polarised and non-polarised light. Methods for obtaining polarised light. Malus’ Law. Linearly, elliptically and circularly polarized light. Double refraction. Ordinary and extraordinary rays. Positive and negative crystals. Quarter and half-wave plates. Uses of polarised light in stress analysis. Optical activity. Specific rotation. Uses of optical activity in cahharimetry and detection of adulteration.
1 Haliday, Resnick and Walker, “Fundamentals of Physics”, Fourth Edition, John Wiley and Sons 1988, 1993 and later editions.
2 A.S. Vasudeva, “Modern Engineering Physics”, S-Chand & Co 1998, Delhi.
3 Robert Resnick and David Halliday, “Physics: Part I and II”, 20th Edition, Wiley Eastern Limited, 1985.
1 Subramanyam and Brij Lal, “Optics” S-Chand & Co 1994, 1995 Delhi.
2 A.S. Vasudeva, “Concept of Modern Engineering Physics”, S-Chand & Co 1998, Delhi.
1.0 Vibrating string.
2.0 Resonance tube
3.0 Geometrical optics.
4.0 Interference, difference and polarization.
6.0 Field mapping.