# Thermodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer EG469ME

Course objective
To provide the student with a basic understanding of thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid flow.

1.0 Introductory Concepts:(2 hours)
1.1 The nature of thermodynamics
1.2 Concepts from mechanics and electromagnetics
1.3 Dimensional and unit systems
1.4 Energy and units

2.0 Energy and the First Law:(3 hours)
2.1 Systems and energy conservation
2.2 Energy transfer as work
2.3 Energy transfer as heat
2.4 Energy balance for a control mass, examples for no flow and steady flow systems

3.0 Properties and States of Substances:(4 hours)
3.1 Simple substances and equations of state
3.2 General nature of a compressible substance
3.3 Metastable states in phase transition
3.4 Physical properties data and engineering analysis
3.5 Other thermodynamic properties
3.6 The perfect gas
3.7 The simple magnetic substance

4.0 Energy Analysis:(2 hours)
4.1 General methodology
4.2 Examples of control mass energy analysis
4.3 Examples of control volume energy analysis

5.0 Entropy and Second Law:(3 hours)
5.1 The essential concept of entropy
5.2 Reversible and irreversible processes
5.3 Entropy as a function of state
5.4 Applications to energy conversion systems

6.0 Characteristics of Some Thermodynamic Systems:(3 hours)
6.1 The carnot cycle
6.2 Process models
6.3 Use of the Rankine cycle
6.4 Vapour refrigeration systems
6.5 Power systems

7.0 Introduction to Heat Transfer:(2 hours)
7.1 Basic concepts and models of heat transfer
7.2 The conduction rate equation and heat transfer coefficient
7.3 Conduction: insulation, R values, electric analogies; overall coefficient for plane walls, cylinders and fins; conduction shape factor; transient heat conduction
7.4 Free and forced convection: laminar and turbulent boundary layers; flat plates, tubes and fins; cross flow and application to heat exchangers
7.6 Heat transfer applications in electronics and electrical engineering: finned heat sinks for electronic applications, forced air cooling of electronic instrumentation, cooling of electric equipment such as transformers, motors, generators, power converters

8.0 Fluid Properties and Definitions:(2 hours)
8.1 Definition of a fluid
8.2 Viscosity
8.3 Density, specific gravity, specific volume
8.4 Bulk modulus
8.5 Surface tension

9.0 Fluid Statics:(3 hours)
9.1 Pressure variation in static fluids
9.2 Pressure measurement, units and scales
9.3 Forces on plane and curved submerged surfaces
9.4 Buoyant force
9.5 Stability of floating and submerged bodies

10.0 Fluid Flow Concepts and Basic Equations:(4 hours)
10.1 Types of flow and definitions
10.2 The continuity equation
10.3 Streamlines and the potential function
10.4 The Bernoulli energy equation
10.5 The momentum equation
10.6 Applications

11.0 Viscous Flow:(3 hours)
11.1 Turbulent and laminar flow, Reynold’s number
11.2 Velocity distribution
11.3 Boundary layer concepts
11.4 Drag on immersed bodies
11.5 Resistance to flow in open and closed conduits
11.6 Pressure losses in pipe flow

12.0 Turbomachinery:(4 hours)
12.1 Geometrically similar (homologous) machines
12.2 Performance equations for pumps and turbines
12.3 Configurations and characteristics of turbomachines, axial and centrifugal pumps and blowers, impulse turbines (pelton), reaction turbines (Francis, Kaplan)
12.4 Cavitation

Laboratory: Selected fundamental laboratory experiments from the facilities for
thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics. In some cases, two
laboratory exercises are to be completed in one three hour period.
1.0 Temperature and pressure measurement.
2.0 Compression and expansion of gases and heat equivalent of work.
3.0 Heat conduction and convection.
4.0 Refrigerator and/or heat pump.
5.0 Hydrostatics and properties of fluids, viscous flow in pipes.
6.0 One of: Air flow studies in axial and centrifugal fans Turbomachines: Kaplan, Pelton and Francis types.

Textbooks and References:
1.0 W.C. Reynolds, “Engineering Thermodynamics”, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition, 1970.
2.0 V.M. Faires, “Thermodynamics”, Macmillan.
3.0 M.N. ozisik, “Heat Transfer – A Basic Approach”, McGraw-Hill, 1985.
4.0 de Witt, “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer”, Wiley 1985.
5.0 Saberski, Acosta and Hauptmann, “Fluid Mechanics”.
6.0 V.L. Streeter, Acosta and Hauptmann, “Fluid Mechanics”, Latest Edition, McGraw Hill.

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