Mobile Communication Technology : Elective

Course Syllabus for “Mobile Communication Technology” Elective Subject, approved on Pulchowck Campus, IOE effective from 2059 Baisakh

1. Introduction( 4 hours)
1.1 Definition of Wireless Communications
1.2 Evolution of Mobile Radio Communications
1.3 Mobile Radio System around the world

1.4 Some examples of Wireless Communication Systems
1.4.1 GSM
1.4.2 DECT
1.4.3 MARTS
1.4.4 VSAT
1.4.5 UHF/VHF

1.5 General introduction of

1.5.1 EI
1.5.2 8, 34, 140 Mbps Radio Transmission System
1.5.3 Optical Transmission System
1.5.4 PSTN

2. The Cellular Concept – System Design Fundamentals ( 6 hours)
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Frequency Re-use
2.3 Frequency Planning, Spectrum Utilization
2.4 Channel Assignment Strategies
2.5 Handoff Strategies
2.6 Interference and System Capacity
2.7 Trunking and Grade of Service
2.8 Improving Capacity in Cellular System
2.9 Introduction of ETSI, CCIRR, CCITT, ITU Recommendations

3. Mobile Radio Propagation, Link Calculation and Antenna System ( 6 hours)
3.1 Introduction to Radio Wave Propagation
3.2 Free Space Propagation Model
3.3 The Three Basic Propagation Mechanism: Reflection, Diffraction, Scattering
3.4 Practical Link Budget Design using Path Loss Models
3.5 Outdoor Propagation Models: Okumura and Hata Model

4. Modulation Techniques for Mobile Radio ( 4 hours)
4.1 Analog and Digital Modulation – an overview
4.2 Pulse Shaping Techniques
4.3 Geometric Representation of Modulation Signals
4.4 Linear Modulation Technique: BPSK, MSK, GMSK, MPSK, MFSK
4.5 Spread Spectrum Modulation Technique

5. Equalization, Diversity, and Channel Coding ( 4 hours)
5.1 Introduction and Fundamental of Equalization
5.2 Diversity Technique
5.3 RAKE Receiver
5.4 Speech Coding
5.5 Quantization Technique
5.6 Vocoders
5.7 The GSM Codec

6. Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communications ( 2 hours)
6.1 Introduction

7. Wireless Networking ( 4 hours)
7.1 Introduction to Wireless Networks
7.2 Difference between Wireless and Fixed Telephone Networks
7.3 Development of Wireless Networks: First, Second and Third Generation
7.4 Fixed Network Transmission Hierarchy
7.5 Common Channel Signaling, Signaling System No 7 (SS7) and ISDN

8. Wireless System and Standards (8 hours)

8.1 Global System for Mobile (GSM)
8.1.1 GSM Service and Feature
8.1.2 GSM System and Architecture
8.1.3 GSM Radio Subsystem
8.1.4 GSM Channel Types
8.1.5 Example of GSM Call
8.1.6 Frame Structure for GSM
8.1.7 Singal Processing in GSM

8.2 CDMA
8.2.1 Frequency and Channel Specifications
8.2.2 Forward CDMA Channel
8.2.3 Reverse CDMA Channel
8.2.4 IS-95 with 14.4 kbps Speech Coder [ANS95]

8.3 DECT
8.3.1 Features and Characteristics
8.3.2 DECT Architecture
8.3.3 DECT Functional Concept
8.3.4 DECT Radio Link

9. Recent Development Trend in Cellular Radio ( 3 hours)
9.1 Recent development on GSM and CDMA Technology

10. Power System ( 4 hours)
10.1 Solar Power System
10.2 Diesel Engine Generator
10.2 Wind Power System
10.3 Hybrid Power System

Laboratory: Six laboratory exercises will be based on departmentally and industrially available equipement.


  1. Wireless Communications Principles and Practice, Theodore S Rappaport, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, Beijing
  2. Wireless Digital Communications Modulation and Spread Spectrum Applications, Dr Kamilo Feher, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
  3. Wireless Communications and Networks, William Stallings, Pearson Education Asia
  4. “Cellular Radio Technology” a handout by Prof. Johnston
  5. “Cellular Mobile Telephone System CME-20” System Description by Ericsson
  6. “Wireless Local Loop Overview” by Motorola
  7. “Digital Radio Multiple Access Subscriber System DRMASS” by NEC
  8. “Radio Access System RAS 1000” by Ericsson
  9. “Network Access” by Alcatel
  10. “CorDECT Wireless Access System” by Midas, IITM and Analog Devices
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Distribution of different frequency range

Different Frequency Range Distribution

This table might not provide all the necessary information for specific frequency range.

No hard and fast rule for opting an antenna for a particular frequency be there.

Many electrical factors (eg radiation efficiency, radiation pattern, maximum antenna gain, antenna impedance, frequency characteristics) and structural factors (eg shape, size, appearance, cost and other economic aspects) are to be taken into account.

Band Frequency Range Wavelength Services Remarks
ELF 3 Hz – 3 KHz Audio signal
VLF 3 – 30 KHz 100 – 10 km World-wide Telegraphy for ships, mine and marine   communication Audio and military navigation
LF 30 – 300 KHz 10 – 1 km AM Broadcasting, Long distance point-to-point   services, Navigation
MF 300 – 3000 KHz 1000 – 100 m AM Broadcasting, Navigation, Harbor telephony General MF antennas– center-fed or folded   dipoles 

Broadcasting antennas– inverted L or T   antennas

HF 3 – 30 MHz 100 – 10 m SW Broadcasting, OTH (Over the horizon) Radars General HF antennas– Half-wave antennas,   arrays like Yagi 

For TV transmission– Center fed dipole


For Communication– Fan dipole+loop+vertical   whip antennas

VHF 30 – 300 MHz 10 – 1 m FM, TV, Radar, Short distance communication,   Aircrafts and Ships Navigation, Telephony Horizontal Polarization used, Horn+Corner+Parabolic   Reflectors used, Slot radiators, Yagi arrays 

Broadband antennas ( conical unipole,   conical dipole, biconical, discone antenna)


All-around coverage given by   vertical+horizontal+circular polarization


For mobile – fin aerial antennas used

UHF 300 -3000 MHz 100 – 10 cm LoS + Sate Comm 

TV, short distance communication, Radar, LAN,   Cellular Mobile communication, GPS, Aircrafts Navigation, Aircraft Landing

SHF 3 – 30 GHz 10 – 1 cm LoS + Sat Comm 

Radar, Radio and TV relay links, Satellite   Communication, Data transmission

Antennas used are horms, reflector antennas and   lens antennas of different types.
EHF 30 – 300 GHz 10 – 1 mm LoS + Sat Comm 

Millimetric wave Radars, Amateur

300 – 3000 GHz < 1 mm Experimental applications

Some of the Facts on this table is referenced from Antennas for all applications, JD Kraus, 3rd Edition