Understanding LEACH Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

LEACH, Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, is an application-specific protocol architecture for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). It has become one of the bases for developing new architecture protocols or modifying the existing one in WSN.

It is an adaptive and self-organizing protocol that minimizes the energy consumption in WSN. The underlying idea behind LEACH is the use of randomized rotation of the aggregators so that energy dissipation is shared evenly among all participating sensor nodes. LEACH is suitable only for smaller networks where Cluster Head Nodes communication with Base Station (BS) directly, that’s why we use LEACH in each independent cluster-like networks.

While I keep updating this article, here is my current presentation about Understanding LEACH protocol.

You can download source code of LEACH Algorithm from our download section.

Useful Tips and Tricks in using LaTeX

Some Commonly Used Packages for Thesis writing in LaTeXHere are some really useful tips and tricks to be used for LaTeX documentations like Journal papers or even your thesis reports. I have compiled some of them which I encountered during my Thesis and special study.

* How to remove or hide page number from (front page) LaTeX Document?

Often we have to remove the page number from the front page of our document say Thesis proposal. I have tried out many suggestions but finally one which I found best and easiest to hide page number is given here:

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Basic Guide to OMNeT++ : Installation, Configuration and Building

OMNeT++ - The Open Simulator
OMNeT++ - The Open Simulator, official page at http://omnetpp.org

OMNeT++ is a discrete event based network simulation framework which provides modularity in open architecture for simulation of computer and related communication networks. OMNeT++ Modeling and Simulation is being used by many researchers and academicians in recent years. We present here basic step by step guide to use OMNeT++, its installation, configuration and building along with screenshots. The basic guideline is published at http://omnetpp.org/doc/omnetpp41/InstallGuide.pdf. Continue reading

Applications and importances of Sensor Networks

The application and importance of sensor network depends on the type of sensor nodes used, the field & scope of deployment, the computational and QoS requirements. The recent advancements in Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) and wireless communication technologies make it a pragmatic vision to deploy a large-scale, low power, inexpensive sensor networks (Ning Xu,) Event detection, location sensing, control of actions to be taken under certain criteria are frequent requirements in sensor networks. Sensors vary from seismic, low sampling rate magnetic, thermal, visual, infrared, acoustic and radar, which are able to monitor a wide variety of ambient conditions like temperature, humidity, vehicular movement, light, pressure, soil makeup, noise level, object detection, mechanical stress level, dimensions, speed and many more. Continue reading

Architecture and Design of Sensor Networks

Sensor network differ from the traditional ISO OSI Model of Communication Standards. Sensor nodes are not necessarily IP equipped and the seven layers of OSI model are in harmony with just three protocol stacks, namely, power management plane, mobility management plane and task management plane. This protocol stack performs functions of sensor network and combines power and routing awareness, integrates data with networking protocols, communicates power efficiently through the wireless medium, and promotes cooperative effort of sensor nodes.

Architecture and Cross layer design of Sensor Networks
Architecture and Cross layer design of Sensor Networks

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Performance Metrics in Wireless Sensor Networks

The design of SN is a challenge because many influencing factors such as fault tolerance, scalability, production cost, operating environment, network topology, hardware constraints, transmission media, power consumption and others have to be considered. The performance of the network is then measured based on quantifiable parameters called performance metrics. This however varies according to need and the nature of SN. Continue reading

Sensor based Next Generation Networks (NGN)

SN can form the base of cloud computing, distributed computing, and Next Generation Networks (NGN). For this, sink nodes can be used as a gateway to interconnect other networks, and backbone scenarios for more connected networks. Router equipped with sensing capabilities can work for saving powers and sleep when there is no activity in the network or so.

Transport layer is specially needed when the system is planned to be accessed thru Internet or other external networks. Nodes route data destined ultimately for the BS thru intermediate nodes, thus nodes can act as routers for other nodes’ data in addition to sensing the environment and other phenomena. This gives a good glimpse of the NGN and possibilities of future web-invasion of sensor network for and with distributed computing.

Schemes for Energy Efficient Wireless Networks

OFDMA Networks: The subcarriers and powers can be allocated according to user’s requirement. BS dynamically controls the resource allocation in two categories – Rate Adaptation (RA) which maximized thru put and Margin Adaptation (MA) which minimizes the total transmitted power. The frequency diversity is yet to be exploited with the consideration of circuitry consumption for frequency-selective fading channels which aids in reduction in energy consumption. The existing research on energy-efficient OFDMA is mainly being focused on the uplink scenarios or mobile terminal sides; however this effort should be put on the downlink or BS for the greener design target. Continue reading

I thought I knew, But Everything has the Logic !

I thought I know this subject matter but.. alas! the world is a different scenario now. All areas are of human interest, none of them are left untouched. For an instance, I thought I knew the difference between hardware and software, I thought I knew the logic behind the Ohm’s law formula, I thought I knew the difference between Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Ad-hoc Networks. And only today, I happened to realize that “research” is the devil, encraving every fields even narrower and narrower, while the broad vision of anything would be falsified.

Logic will get you from A to B, imagination will take you everywhere. Albert Einstein
Logic for Logic – Logic will get you from A to B, imagination will take you everywhere. Albert Einstein

I tweeted just at initiation of this article: “You can’t learn in school what the world is going to do next year.” Henry Ford. This is going to be true for all forms of “School” in our lives.

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